by M. Fernanda Flores – Jan Bergmann – Carolina Ballesteros – Diego Arraztio
1Instituto de Química, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avda. Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso 2340000, Chile
2Agroadvance SpA. Camino Melipilla, Peñaflor, Santiago 9710000, Chile
3Facultad de Agronomía e Ingeniería Forestal, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago 7820436, Chile
4Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Avda. Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago 8820808, Chile*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrea Lucchi and Giovanni BenelliInsects2021, 12(7), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12070625Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 18 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 9 July 2021(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Insect Pheromones to Mating Disruption: Theory and Practice)
Proeulia auraria is a native and growing pest insect in fruit orchards in Chile, which calls for environmentally friendly management methods. Using synthetic pheromone compounds, we conducted field trials to optimize the septa load for monitoring adult moths. Using the optimized blend we studied the phenology of males in vineyards, apples, and blueberries, finding two large flight cycles lasting from September to May. Afterward, based on field trials, we concluded that 250 point sources loaded with a total of 78 g/ha of the pheromone blend, provided high disruption of male-female encounters for mating in all crops tested for at least 5 months. We concluded that mating disruption is feasible for P. auraria, needing now the development of a commercial product and of protocols to control this pest.
The leafroller Proeulia auraria (Clarke) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a native, polyphagous, and growing pest of several fruit crops in Chile; it also has quarantine importance to several markets, thus tools for management are needed. Using synthetic pheromone compounds, we conducted field trials to optimize the blend for monitoring, and to determine the activity period of rubber septa aged under field conditions. We concluded that septa loaded with 200 μg of E11-14:OAc + 60 μg E11-14:OH allowed for efficient trap captures for up to 10 weeks. Using this blend, we studied the phenology of adult males in vineyards, apple, and blueberry orchards, identifying two long flight cycles per season, lasting from September to May and suggesting 2–3 generations during the season. No or low adult activity was observed during January and between late May and late August. Furthermore, mating disruption (MD) field trials showed that application of 250 pheromone point sources using the dispenser wax matrix SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology, 10.5% pheromone) with a total of 78 g/ha of the blend described above resulted in trap shutdown immediately after application, and mating disruption >99% in all orchards for at least 5 months. We concluded that MD is feasible for P. auraria, needing now the development of a commercial product and the strategy (and protocols) necessary to control this pest in conventional and organic orchards in Chile. As far as we know, this is the first report on MD development against a South American tortricid pest.